SoLayTec introduces breakthrough techniques. Our distinctiveness is evident in using new technologies such as ‘spatial ALD’ and ‘motion of wafers by the double floating principle’. This enables the best possible passivation for all kind of c-Si solar cells . Furthermore, passivation can be done by a very thin layer at the lowest cost.
Layer thickness flexibility
Modular, Lab to Fab
Up to 4,800 wph
In a comparison of the two technologies, ALD offered an average gain of 0.2% higher efficiency for PERC compared to the MW-PECVD AIOx.
It’s known that the average uptime of MW-PECVD deposition technique is about 80-85%. The combination of InPassion ALD with SPECTRUM PECVD is about 95%.
Due to the fact that the ALD layer is only 5nm thick, and a standard PECVD layer is about 20nm, the saving is about factor 4.
Savings in TMA consumption along with higher efficiency and output result in a much higher margin for the customer.
If customers don't have their own R&D team to make PERC process possible, SoLayTec can provide an on-site integration team for successful PERC integration. Our team has integrated PERC multi and mono for different customers in Asia on several occasions. A example is the...
If customers don't have their own R&D team to make PERC process possible, SoLayTec can provide an on-site integration team for successful PERC integration. Our team has integrated PERC...Download
"ALD Al2O3 provides excellent passivation to the rear surface of mono-Si and multi-Si solar cells," R&D director Fandang Jiang says. "At Jinko Solar, we can gain 1% efficiency on mono-Si and 0.6-0.8% efficiency on multi-Si. Also, the uniform thin AlOx layer grown...
"ALD Al2O3 provides excellent passivation to the rear surface of mono-Si and multi-Si solar cells," R&D director Fandang Jiang says. "At Jinko Solar, we can gain 1% efficiency on...
"In our semiconductor affiliation program at imec we have been using ALD for many years," Program Director PV Jef Poortmans states. "Especially when a certain layer needs to be very dense, uniform and conformal, the ALD technique is a unique option."
"In our semiconductor affiliation program at imec we have been using ALD for many years," Program Director PV Jef Poortmans states. "Especially when a certain layer needs to be very dense, uniform...Download
Frederieke Kersten states: "Using the ALD compared with our MW-PECVD system creates a higher efficiency and is a promising tool for Al2O3 passivation."
Frederieke Kersten states: "Using the ALD compared with our MW-PECVD system creates a higher efficiency and is a promising tool for Al2O3 passivation."Download
This article shows the evaluation results on industrial p-type mc-Si PERC cells using spatial atomic layer deposition for aluminum oxide from SoLayTec. By optimizing the process flow and integrating a post-deposition anneal into the SiNx capping process we achieve 0.15% higher cell efficiency compared to remote microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. If the FF were to be...259 Downloads
Today, the silicon solar cells with the highest efficiency are interdigitated back contact solar cells. At imec, the cell concept for 15.6x15.6 cm2 IBC cells relies on a rear design with multiple busbars and a Cu plated rear metallization. Previously, we reported efficiencies up to 21.9% by introducing Cu plated contacts. Further developments in the rear design to overcome FF and Jsc losses...200 Downloads
In this paper, we report the results of an upgrade from an Al-BSF solar cell line to a PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) solar cell line, based on p-type mono-crystalline silicon (mono c-Si) material. For the rear side Al2O3 passivation, an InPassion ALD system of SoLayTec was used. The PERC solar cell optimization has been done in three main steps: first we optimized the rear...160 Downloads
In this paper we introduce bifacial n-type PERT cells (Bi-PERT) with ultra-thin (< 3 um) and narrow (< 20 um) Ni/Ag plated fingers on both the n+ and p+ side of the cell. This cell architecture is designed for multi-wire interconnection and has the potential to deliver low Cost of Ownership at module level (< 0.40 $/Wp), as it can profit from bifacial gain, a low cost metallization...219 Downloads
The article is in both Chinese and English. Last December SoLayTec celebrated its 5th anniversary, and in the meantime has installed about twenty items of ALD equipment in the PV industry. We are happy to be the leading ALD supplier in this market. Unfortunately, while we are not yet number one in the market for Al2O3 passivation, we do expect to win further market share with our 2nd...460 Downloads
It will not have escaped your attention that PERC is indeed setting the agenda right now. But to stay one step ahead, it’s worth ‘thinking smart, and choosing Spatial ALD’ argues SoLayTec’s Roger Görtzen in a typically passionate and well considered piece. "Published: PES magazine, edition 27 2015"1791 Downloads
We present large area n-type solar cells (n-PERT) featuring a rear-boron-diffused emitter passivated with a stack of ALD Al2O3 and PECVD SiOx. We present the advantages of such a device structure and we show that efficiencies of 22% are within reach in the near future even without resorting to a back-contacted configuration and/or contact passivation.2652 Downloads
In this paper, we present the InPERC technology implemented into a multi- and monocrystalline silicon (mc- and Cz-Si) solar cell production of major Asian cell manufacturers. Stable average efficiencies over 18% and 20% respectively were demonstrated. Best average efficiencies of 18.4% were achieved on mc-Si solar cells with a best cell efficiency of 18.8%. To reduce the cost of ownership (CoO)...2288 Downloads
Intrinsic as well as doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are used in the photovoltaic industry as transparent and conducting window layers. The most common deposition technique for ZnO is sputtering which is known to cause near-surface damage due to the exposure of the underlying material to highly energetic ions. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a low-damage deposition technique that offers...3277 Downloads
Introduction: N-type PERT (passivated emitter and rear, totally doped) solar cells  with boron emitters have attracted recently significant research interest [2–6]. While the efficiencies reported so far for industrial n-type PERT cells are comparable to the respective values for as-processed p-type PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) cells, the n-type base material does not suffer...2878 Downloads
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present the InPERC technology implemented into a multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell production of a major Chinese cell manufacturer. Stable average efficiencies over 18% were demonstrated. Best average efficiencies of 18.4% were achieved on mc-Si solar cells without selective emitter with a best cell efficiency of 18.8%. To reduce the cost of ownership (CoO)...4567 Downloads
Naomi Nandakumar, Fen Lin, Bas Dielissen, Floor Souren, Xavier Gay, Roger Gortzen, Shubham Duttagupta, Armin G. Aberle and Bram Hoex. ABSTRACT: A key concern for the integration of Al2O3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the photovoltaic industry is its high cost of precursors. This cost can be reduced by replacing conventional semiconductorgrade trimethylaluminium (TMA) with...3658 Downloads
Xavier Gay, Floor Souren, Bas Dielissen, Martin Bijker, Roger Gortzen, Damian Pysch, Katrin Weise, Bernd Sander, Ronald Sastrawan. ABSTRACT: Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC) solar cell concept is one of the most promising technology for increasing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency as well as a technology at relatively low production costs compared to other advanced solar cell...3638 Downloads
F.M.M. Souren, B. Dielissen, X. Gay, R. Gortzen, X.L. Jiang, W.Z. Ban, W. Shan, R. Hoyer, X. Mao, X. Qu. ABSTRACT: We have studied the passivation effect of ALD Al2O3/SiNx stacks as a function of H2O concentration during atomic layer deposition (ALD), with and without post-deposition annealing. Firing-stable and blister-free ALD Al2O3/SiNx stacks with implied Voc values larger than 700 mV can...2933 Downloads
E. Cornagliotti, L. Tous, A. Uruena, A. Rothschild, R. Russell, V. Lu, S. Radosavjlevic, J. John, J. Toman, M. Aleman, F. Duerinckx, J. Poortmans, J. Szlufcik, B. Dielissen, F. Souren, X. Gay, R. Görtzen, B. Hallam. ABSTRACT: In this paper we present an overview of the integration of amorphous aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as rear side passivation layer for large area industrial PERC solar cells...3241 Downloads
R. Sastrawan, D. Pysch, M. Bijker, F. Delahaye, B. Dielissen, W. Eipert, X. Gay, R. Görtzen, A. Hoffmann, B. Latzel, M. Lenes, X. Mao, S. Patzig+Klein, X.Qu, B. Sander, C. Schmitt, F. M. M. Souren, A. Träger, K. Weise, S. Yang and H. Nussbaumer In this paper, we present results of the implementation of the InPERC technology into an industrial pilot production of a major Chinese cell...3928 Downloads
Atomic layer deposited (ALD) AI203 films are not yet applied in the PV industry despite their excellent performance in the lab. A major challenge is the usage of expensive semiconductor (semicon) grade trimethylaluminium (TMA) as the AI precursor. The cost of ownership for ALD AI203 passivation can be significantly reduced if lower purity solar grade TMA is used. Earlier work bij Dingemans et...1917 Downloads
市场的形势依然不如期望，所以我们都必须努力使已经是谷底价格的太阳能光伏更具吸引力！设备供应商可透过引进能进一步提高效率并且合算的新设备来达到这个目的，同时我们也有义务让客户知道他们所得到的不会是一个童话故事。我不得不承认，一些设备供应商只告诉他们的客户不全的事实，然而他们为什么要这样做？我所能想到唯一的原因是他们想再次出售新机器 .1975 Downloads
Door Alexander Pil (Mechatronica & machinebouw) Slechts achttien maanden gaf SolayTec zichzelf om zijn bestaande R&D -tool voor atoomlaagdepositie om te toveren tot een systeem dat in de smaak zou vallen bij veeleisende zonnecelfabrikanten. De TNO-spin-off slaagde daarin door deelontwikkelingen parallel te laten verlopen en de kritieke onderdelen fysiek na te bouwen en uitvoerig te...1618 Downloads
Aude Rothschild, Richard Russell, Joachim John, Philip Pieters and Jef Poortmans/imec PERC cells: Imec reports on recent innovations in some of the key steps for fabricating PERC-type solar cells: a new metallization scheme, a promising ALD - AL2O3 -based passivation layer and the integration of very thin cells into a module. In all these improvements, imec goes beyond current Si PV boundaries...1716 Downloads
C.Kranz1, S. Wyczanowski1, S. Dorn1, K. Weise3, C. Klein3, K. Bothe1, T. Dullweber1, R. Brendel1,2 1 Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany 2 Department of Solar Energy, Institute of Solid-State Physics,Leibniz University of Hanover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hanover, Germany 3 RENA GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, D-79108 Freiburg, Germany...11121 Downloads
E. Cornagliotti 1, A Uruena1, J. Horzel1, J. John1, L. Tous1, D. Hendrickx1, V. Prajapati1, S. Singh1, R. Hoyer2, F. Delahaye 2, K. Weise2, D. Queisser2, H. Nussbaumer2 and J. Poortmans11 IMEC vzw., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven, Belgium2 RENA GmbH, Hohenweg 1, 78148 Gütenbach, Germany In this work we study the impact of chemical polishing on the performance of mono-crystalline PERC cells....3258 Downloads
Richter, Schuldis, Benick, Hermle, Glunz; Fraunhofer ISE, Souren, Gortzen; SoLayTec Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known to provide an excellent passivation on lowly- and highly-doped p-type silicon surfaces even after contact firing processes. Therefore, Al2O3 layers are of great interest for the passivation of the rear side of p-type solar cells as well as the...3575 Downloads
Roger Görtzen, SoLayTecDillenburgstraat 9G, 5652 AM Eindhoven, The Netherlands What will be the standard for Al2O3? At this moment there are a few options for deposition of Al2O3. Spatial ALD, Batch ALD and, of course, PECVD, currently the most common. This article cannot go into too much detail about every solution but the obvious question to ask is “what will be the standard for Al2O3 for...2811 Downloads
Vermeer, Ad; SoLayTec, TechnologyRoozeboom, Fred; TNO, Science and Industry; Technical UniversityEindhoven, Applied PhysicsPoodt, Paul; TNO, thin film technologiesGortzen, Roger; SoLayTec, Marketing and Sales Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a gas phase deposition technique for depositing veryhigh quality thin films with an unsurpassed conformality. The main drawback of ALD howeveris the very...6058 Downloads
Florian Werner, Walter Stals, Roger Görtzen, Boris Veith, Rolf Brendel, Jan Schmidt, Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal, Germany SoLayTec, Dillenburgstraat 9G, 5652 AM Eindhoven, The Netherlands High-rate spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables an industrially relevant deposition of high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films for the surface...6110 Downloads
Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en InnovatiePieken in de Delta Zuidoost-NederlandHigh Tech Systemen en Materialen In de wereld van zonne-energie is elke rendementsverbeteringeen kwestie van jarenlang noeste arbeid in het laboratorium.Daarom was het goed nieuws dat de Technische UniversiteitEindhoven een methode voor rendementsverbetering heeftgevonden, door een zeer dunne laag...2737 Downloads
Jan Schmidt, Florian Werner, Boris Veith, Dimitri Zielke, Robert Bock & Rolf Brendel, Institute for Solar EnergyResearch Hamelin (ISFH), Emmerthal, Germany; Veronica Tiba, SoLayTec, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Paul Poodt &Fred Roozeboom, TNO Science & Industry, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Andrew Li & Andres Cuevas, The AustralianNational University (ANU), Canberra, Australia....8314 Downloads
Johannes Bernreuter The growing price pressure in the industry forces crystalline solar cell manufacturers to reach high efficiency levels in production rapidly. The photovoltaic conference in Valencia revealed that some approches which have already been under discussion for years are now increasing in popularity. Source: Sun & Wind Energy, 11/20105061 Downloads
Florian Werner, Boris Veith, Veronica Tiba, Paul Poodt, Fred Roozeboom, Rolf Brendel and Jan Schmidt Using aluminum oxide Al2O3 films deposited by high-rate spatial atomic layer deposition ALD, we achieve very low surface recombination velocities of 6.5 cm/s on p-type and 8.1 cm/s on n-type crystalline silicon wafers. Using spatially separated reaction zones instead of the conventional...4525 Downloads
B. Vermang, A. Rothschild, A. Racz, J. John, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, P. Poodt, V. Tiba and F. Roozeboom A next generation material for surface passivation is atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3. However, conventional time-resolved ALD is limited by its low deposition rate. Therefore, an experimental high-deposition-rate prototype ALD reactor based on the spatially-separated ALD principle has...5862 Downloads
Jan Schmidt, Florian Werner, Boris Veith, Dimitri Zielke, Robert Bock, Veronica Tiba, Paul Poodt, Fred Roozeboom, Andrew Li, Andres Cuevas and Rolf Brendel We present independently confirmed efficiencies of 21.4% for PERC cells with plasma-assisted atom-ic-layer-deposited (plasma ALD) Al2O3 rear passivation and 20.7% for cells with thermal ALD-Al2O3. Additionally, we evaluate three different...4551 Downloads
By Paul Poodt, Adriaan Lankhorst, Fred Roozeboom, Karel Spee, Diederik Maas and Ad VermeerAtomic-layer deposition (ALD) is a deposition technique capable of producing very thin conformal films with control of the thickness and composition of the films at the atomic level.In this Communication we show that with spatially separated ALD of Al2O3 , growth rates of1.2 nm/s can be achieved, showing...6173 Downloads
In early 2016 the 2nd Generation InPassion ALD tool was introduced by SoLayTec and one of our main Asian customers installed this type of tool in...Read more
SoLayTec today announced the continuing positive trend of incoming orders. Four new solar customers around the globe have ordered the Atomic Layer...Read more
The new InPassion ALD user, which is one of the tier one players in China, will start multi cSi PERC development in its in-house R&D centre....Read more
Leuven (Belgium)—Jan. 15, 2015—Nano-electronics research center imec announced today that it has improved its large area n-type PERT...Read more
Germany based Hanwha Q CELLS in Thalheim starts to evaluate the SoLayTec InPassion® ALD “LAB to FAB solution”. This tool will be used for the...Read more
Tempress (a subsidiary of the Amtech Group) has acquired the SoLayTec shares previously owned by RENA GmbH as they will focus on its expertise in...Read more
US based Mission Solar Energy has ordered an InPassion ALD for its high efficiency n-type silicon bifacial solar cell line. With this order...Read more
In recent weeks SoLayTec has shipped a number of systems. These systems includes a repeat order for modules (approx. 60MW) for an Asian customer,...Read more
In January the combination of RENA and SoLayTec received an order for the turnkey InPERC technology. The customer will convert one of its...Read more
A tier one cell manufacturer has ordered a second RENA-SoLayTec machine to start producing PERC cells in their production base of mono-Si wafers in...Read more
Leuven (Belgium) – September 27, 2013At next week’s European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC, Paris), the Belgian...Read more
ISFH and SoLayTec have achieved a conversion efficiency of 20.1% applying a 5nm thin spatial ALD Al2O3 layer as rear passivation of industrial-type...Read more
Cooperation between technology leaders will accelerate development of cost efficient solution for Large Area ALD in Thin Film PV & Display...Read more
Last year at the 27th PVSEC in Frankfurt, SoLayTec introduced the InPassion ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) mass production machine for low cost...Read more
EUPVSEC 2012 (Frankfurt, Germany) – September 24, 2012At this week’s European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (27th...Read more
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, March 21 2012ISFH in Germany has purchased a Process Development Tool from SoLayTec. ISFH will optimize the Al2O3...Read more
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, June 28, 2011Imec, Fraunhofer ISE and two Asian cell manufacturers have shown their trust in the ultrafast ALD...Read more
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, May 3, 2011 SoLayTec is genomineerd voor de WNF Cleantech Star 2011. Dit is een prijs voor het meest veelbelovende...Read more
The German wet processing equipment producer RENA GmbH and Brabant Development Agency (BOM) have invested in SoLayTec, a company incorporated by...Read more